Depression is a mood wherein a person constantly feels down and withdrawn from any activities affecting a person’s thoughts, feelings and behavior. Sadness, anxiety, restlessness, despair, emptiness, guiltiness, worthlessness, irritableness and shyness are emotions that come with depression.
People who are depressed may lose their appetite or resolve in overeating and not motivated to follow any type of diet. Some may also experience difficulty in engaging, making decisions and contemplate. Committing suicide is the worst effect of depression.
There are three possible causes for depression. A psychological disorder can cause episodes of depression. People with this disorder are normally not aware as to why they feel depressed.
The next cause of depression is due to tragic or traumatic life events. For people who experience such unfortunate events, usually reacts with depression.
Another cause is depression might be a side effect of body ailments or some medication and drugs. Depression caused by disease such as epilepsy or medication side effects is often mild.
Type of Depression
1. Major Depression
Major depression is a state wherein a person experiences a very low point in their lives. They feel disinterest in their normal activities and relationships. If this feeling of downs is present every day for at least two weeks, it is already described as a mood disorder resulting in a mental health condition.
Major depression is a serious condition. Chemical changes in the brain due to problems with the gene can trigger major depression. Some other causes for major depression include major life events, social isolation, personal conflicts or physical, emotional and sexual abuse.
Major depression could be treated based on the diagnosis. Usually, it can be treated with certain medications.
2. Persistent Depressive Disorder
Persistent Depressive Disorder was also called dysthymia. It is a chronic type of depression. A person with persistent depressive disorder could experience depression that lasts for at least two years.
The symptoms of persistent depressive disorder are not severe like major depression. However, major depression could sometimes occur with people who have PDD. PDD can also cause a high risk of suicide.
There are a lot of methods to treat PDD. Common ways are to have enough sleep, have a healthy diet, regular exercise, surround you with positive people and avoid alcohol and illegal drugs. Medications are also an effective way to treat PDD.
3. Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is also called manic-depressive illness. Bipolar disorder is a result of a mental disorder. Bipolar disorder causes a strange change in mood. It affects the amount of energy, activity levels and ability to carry out tasks every day.
Bipolar symptoms are very severe. It involves two extreme emotional states. First is the period of too much joyfulness or overexcitement. It is called the manic state. After the manic state is the depression state. It is the period of extreme sadness.
Bipolar Disorder can result in damaged relationships and poor job or school performance. Bipolar disorder is a lifetime condition. However, medications are available to control the symptoms.
4. Seasonal Affective Disorder
Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD is a type of depression that changes in seasons. SAD begins and ends at the same time every year. SAD usually occurs in winter and ends in spring or summer. Therefore, SAD is commonly known as the winter depression. In rare cases, SAD occurs in spring or summer and ends in winter.
Some symptoms of major depression are also part of SAD. SAD is believed to be caused by the reduced exposure to sunlight during winter. Lack of sunlight may cause the brain’s hypothalamus from functioning.
It often affects the production of melatonin, serotonin and circadian rhythm. SAD can be treated using light therapy, psychotherapy and medications.
5. Psychotic Depression
Psychotic depression is also called depressive psychosis. Psychotic depression is a combination of major depressive disorder and psychotic symptoms. The psychotic symptoms include delusions and hallucinations.
Psychotic symptoms arise after a person has experienced several episodes of depression without psychosis. A person with psychotic depression can still function well both socially and professionally in between episodes.
Several treatments are available for psychotic depression. It is either a combination of a second-generation antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
6. Postpartum Depression
Postpartum depression is also called the postnatal depression. Postpartum depression is triggered after women give birth. After giving birth, women experience what they call baby blues.
Baby blues include mood swings, anxiety, difficulty in sleeping and crying spells. It begins two to three days after delivery and lasts up to two weeks. However, postpartum depression is a more severe and long-lasting form of depression than the normal baby blues.
Postpartum depression is known to be triggered by complications in giving birth. Hormonal changes are also believed to be one of the causes of postpartum depression. A series of therapy can treat women with postpartum depression.
7. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe type of premenstrual syndrome. PMDD involves a group of affective, behavioral and somatic symptoms. PMDD occurs monthly during the latter phase of menstrual cycle.
PMDD have physical and emotional symptoms. Irritability, anxiety, loss of appetite and fatigue are the emotional symptoms. Physical symptoms are abdominal bloating, breast tenderness and general body aches.
Hormonal fluctuations are believed to be the cause of PMDD. An antidepressant that can control serotonin levels in the brain is the only reliable treatment for PMDD.
Related: Types of Birth Control
8. Situational Depression
Situational depression is also called adjustment or reactive disorder. Outside stressors can trigger situational depression. A person who cannot cope with a major stress or life event can experience situational depression. Situational depression could be acute or chronic.
Aside from the common emotional symptoms, SD also includes behavioral symptoms. Fighting, reckless driving, ignoring tasks, skipping school and avoiding family or friends are signs of behavioral symptoms. SD could be effectively treated by psychotherapy.
9. Atypical Depression
Atypical depression is a type of depression that shares symptoms of major depression and persistent depressive disorder. However, AD can improve mood in response to positive events.
Atypical depression can result to gain weight or an increase in appetite hypersomnia and sensitivity to rejection.
Atypical depression has unique symptoms. It is a chronic syndrome that can cause greater functional impairments than other type of depression. Atypical depression only responds to two different types of antidepressants.